Date: Iron Sheep year, 11th month, 14th (or 16th?) day (1871)
Lines: 7
Script: ‘khyug

A lama of Tshognam has placed a freezing order on house that he believes belongs to him. An investigation conducted by the Duke of Baragaon has, however, revealed documents confirming that the contested house was indeed given to the rival claimant by the lamas’s relatives.


1. lcags mo lug lo zla 11 pa’i tshes 14/16 la sku Zzhabs tsan dhar bhir dang snga ’zhabs gan ba 18 ba rnaṃ

2. nas tshogs rnaṃ nyag rdo la phyags rtag snang ba la | dcha (da cha) kho yi khang ba la bla ma thu thob nas

3. tho bo ’rgyab pa’i rgyu la rtan nas | khrim Zzhabs su khrim phul bhar rtan nas | khrim kyi dar

4. zhan mdzad nas | sngon bla ma rang brol dang bla ma tshes dbang buṃ ba 2 nas chu tshigs gi yie (yi ge)

5. la phya nas byas nas khang bha spon dbang rn[ams] [1S] | kho bo nyag rdo la snang ba des la phyi su

6. su thad nas nyad tsher brang skad stil bru tsaṃ yang byed mi phyogs pa’i spon spang snaṃ kyi phyags

7. stag bris nas phrong (pho brang) skun khyabs gling nas snang ba yin (seal)


1. mnga’ zhabs rgan pa 18 pa rnams 2. phyag rtags gnang 3. la rten nas | khrims; khrims ’bul bar rten; khrims kyis gdar 4. sha mdzad; chod tshig kyi 5. cha nas byas; khang pa dpon ’bangs 6. brnyas gtser sbrang skad til ’bru; mi chog; dpon dpang (or ’bangs) rnams kyi phyag 7. rtags bris; kun khyab gling; gnang ba


Iron Sheep year, 11th month, 14th (or 16th?) day. Kushog Candra Bir [of Dzong] and the eighteen headmen of Ngazhab give this sealed document to Nyagdo of Tshognam. Lama Thuthob recently (lit. now) placed a small cairn in front of (lit. on) his house, and Nyagdo accordingly requested legal proceedings. Following a legal inquiry [it was determined] that Lama Rangdrol and Lama Tshewang Bumpa had, in the past, given the house to Nyagdo, and had drawn up a written agreement to this effect. The lord and his subjects [confirm that] it was indeed given to Nyagdo. The lord and his subjects (or witnesses) set their marks [to confirm] that no one may say anything contentious about this so much as a sesame seed or the buzzing of a fly. Issued by Kunkhyabling Palace. (Seal, bearing illegible Devanāgari script)


Kunkhyabling probably refers to the palace in Dzong, in the Muktinath Valley, one of the seats of the ruling aristocracy. Candra Bir became the Duke of Baragaon in 1855 or 1856. The relationship of the claimant, Lama Thuthob, to the better-known lamas remains obscure, since his name appears in only a few other documents. In Doc. 08 he is identified as a resident of Kyukar, an area near Purang in the Muktinath Valley.


Line 2, nyag rdo, Nyagdo: presumably a nickname.

Line 3, tho bo’rgyab, “placed a small cairn”: refers to the practice of erecting piling up stones on or near a contested item of property (usually a field) as a common-law freezing order that prevents the item from being used until its ownership has been legally determined.

Line 6, nyad tsher: this expression recurs in various forms throughout the archive. It has been understood here and passim as brnyas gtser, “contention” (lit. “contemptuous argumentation”), but cf. snyad gtses, “search for faults and attribute faults to the faultless” (IW).