Date: Fire Bird year, 7th month, 4th day, Monday (1897)
Lines: 10; one line on verso
Script: ’khyug ma tshug
Remarks: second line damaged due to folding of do

Receipt of a loan of grain, salt and rice by Lama Ösal Dorje to a nobleman of Samar. The security on the loan consists of a house, a threshing yard and two fields.



1. sa mar gagā stams zugs

1. me bya zla 7 pa tshe 4 res za 2 nyin | rtaṃ zug yige (yi ge) bris don la | tshogs rnaṃ blaṃ tshe dbang buṃ pa nas ’bru dngul song tho la

2. sa dmar gagā sde[m] chogs [only parts of syllables are legible for remainder of line; the figure 26 is visible below the line]

3. rtse mor ’bar pha tshe bu brgyud ’bar la dngul 26 [1S] ’bur tsho la ’phul pa dang | ma zad nang tshan za rgyon sogs ma tshang par rnang brten blaṃ (bla ma) la

4. ’bun du zhu pas | rgyab res sar snying sdoṃ nas bo khal rgyad dang zo ba lnga | nas bod khal lnga | tsha bod khal zhi | bras bod khal gsuṃ

5. bcas song | ’di yi sgrig bha do la khang pa dbul sa | zhing sṃe or gyuṃ phug sras zla pa’i thob khal | chu ’ar rab dgu sdong sdong bcas

6. zhag yod pa | lo res la bhad lnga ma drug ’phul rgyu | rgal srid ’dab ma nus phyin ngang ga thaṃs pa yan khang pa dgra dmi gnyis man

7. zhing gnyis bcas ’bur tso spa rtsa la ’phul pa yin | ’di la dmar po tshos logs | snyog pa ting rlog | dran pa sar btam sogs su thad

8. nas ’gal song med pa | gagā sdeṃ chog | sras bskyid ljong | sras zla ba gsuṃ blo seṃs rang thad kyi phyag rtags XXX don ’di phya spang

9. la | sa dmar rkar mi’i rtags X smon thang sras bkris (bkra shis) rtags X tshugs bragr (brag dmar) span ’byor rtags X tshe ring rdoe (rdo rje) rtags X yig

10. bris sgrub pa tshe ring rdoe (rdo rje) yin | bkris (bkra shis)

Lama Tshewang Bumpa of Tshognam has lent 8 ’bo khal of buckwheat, 5 ’bo khal of barley, 4 ’bo khal of salt, and 3 ’bo khal of rice to the Nobleman Demchog of Samar. As the security (sgrig bha do; bha do < Nep. banḍhak) Demchog has put up: a house, a threshing yard and the fields named Me Orgyum and Rabgu Dongdong, which is located in Chuwer (an area of land north of the main settlement of Samar). The interest shall be 20 per cent (lnga ma [for la?] drug—‘six for five’). The agreement is confirmed with the formulae that “red should not change colour, sediment should not be raised from the bottom, new issues that come to mind should not be brought up”.

The document is signed by Demchog and his two sons. The witnesses are from Samar, Mönthang and the Dragmar sector of Tshug. The scribe is sgrub pa Tshering Dorje.

The relationship between the two documents HMA/LTshognam/Tib/11 and HMA/LTshognam/Tib/12 is not immediately clear. HMA/LTshognam/Tib/11 (henceforth Doc. 11) was written on the same day as the first part of HMA/LTshognam/Tib/12, and both bear the names of the same four witnesses. The date of the second part of HMA/LTshognam/Tib/12 (Doc. 12 part 2) is eleven days later than the first part (Doc. 12 part 1), and it carries the names of two witnesses who are different from the previous four. The scribes of the two documents are different, but both documents seem to be originals since the names of the witnesses and debtors are followed by crosses. Both refer to an outstanding debt of 26 rupees, but Doc. 12 part 1 refers only to this debt, and not to debts of grain that have been incurred. The security for the loan in Doc. 12 part 1 is given as ten poplar trees. Line 2 of Doc. 11 is badly damaged, but the first part of line 3, beginning rtse mor ’bar pha tshe bu brgyud… is almost identical to the corresponding passage in Doc. 12 part 1 (lines 2–3), suggesting that the preceding, damaged section also mentions the security of poplar “from their roots to their tops” (rtsa ba nas rtse mo’i bar), and the barely-visible dngul 26 on line 2 refers to the loan for which these trees are a security.

While Doc. 12 part 1 and this first part of Doc. 11 therefore probably deal with the same issue, the remainder of Doc. 11 and Doc. 12 part 2 are clearly related, but with certain differences that can be summarised in tabular form:

HMA/LTshognam/Tib/12 part 1


HMA/LTshognam/Tib/12 part 2

Debt Security Interest Debt Security Interest Debt Security
26 rupees 10 poplar trees 26 rupees (probably 10 poplar trees)

buckwheat 8 ’bo khal 5 zo ba


House and threshing yard

2 fields

20 per cent buckwheat 8 ’bo khal 5 zo ba house and threshing yard

rice 3 ’bo khal


rice 5 ’bo khal


barley 5 ’bo khal


barley 3 ’bo khal


salt 4 ’bo khal


salt 6 ’bo khal


These are the main differences between the second part of Doc. 11 and Doc. 12 part 1: while the quantity of buckwheat borrowed is the same, the amount of rice and barley have been reversed, and that of salt has increased by 2 ’bo khal. The interest rate has been raised from 20 to 35 per cent, but the borrower’s security no longer includes the two fields.

Doc. 12 is apparently not a new agreement but a revised version of Doc. 11. It seems likely that the entirety of Doc. 12 was written on the 15th day, and that the first part of it was back-dated to the 4th day—the day on which Doc. 11 was written. The witnesses to Doc. 12 part 1 are the same as those in Doc. 11 because this part of the agreement—the security of 10 poplar trees for an old debt of 26 rupees—has not been altered, and the names of the old witnesses could therefore be repeated in good faith.

However, the second part of Doc. 11 has been revised, either because of an error or because it was in the mutual interest of both parties to do so, and for this purpose it would have been necessary to engage witnesses who were actually present in Samar on the 15th day: the old witnesses—all from other settlements—were apparently no longer there at the time. (We cannot tell whether the they themselves added the crosses after their names in the first part at some later, convenient time, or whether these were provided by the scribe.)