Te_37

HMA/TE/TIB/37

No date; probably early eighteenth century
Lines: 7+12
Script: tshugs
Remarks: document consists of two sheets of paper, joined by stitching. The upper sheet, containing 7 lines, badly damaged, with only lines 6 and 7 completely intact. The lower sheet contains 12 lines.

Transliteration

Upper sheet

  1. [±3S] kye | [1]n|d dpon po ’dra [ ]
  2. [±2S] pa’i ste stab la nod pa [1S] [ ]
  3. yang mi man|bden [1S]o tshu[g] pa’i | ng [1]e [ ]
  4. sna ba (bcu gnyis) la [±2]m byas [ ]
  5. bdrung khra’i thog pa la | bkum snyas che [ ]
  6. sgra’ mi gro thug gong rtso ba bzhu’ zhu |
  7. gzhan yang |

Lower sheet

  1. zhu zhu | tshug pa kho cang ku ta zan lug kyi mi drang ba yin
  2. pas deng tshung | sde lug gong pa rtso ba zhu | da’ rung dang tshug pa
  3. kho dug pa yin zer kyin dugs pas | kho’i sab ca dang khral
  4. [’u] lags kyi thog du | nyed sted pa dad du ’ong chi pas | sde lug
  5. gong pa rtso ba zhu | nyed sted pa kyid pa’i sab ca dang khral
  6. ’u lag kyi thogs du | tshugs pa kho dad du cug pa [1S] cigs dzad
  7. pa (zhu zhu) | dngan dus kyi srol la | ’u lags kyi rig
  8. dzar dzong kag sum nas | shod du shod nas chu bar du
  9. min pa srol dmed cing | kho tshugs pa’i chu bar kyi
  10. rab cad zas shing | kho tshug pa mi gyal ba’i dbang med
  11. cing | gong pa rtso ba (zhu zhu) | di star man na | nga sted
  12. pa’i smu ya di yang ’kral god snang ba zhu zhu | |

1. spyang ku rta zan; mi ’grang 2. dang (?) mtshungs; de lugs dgongs pa ’tshol; da rung 3. sdug po yin zer gyin ’dug; kho’i sa cha 4. ’u lag gi thog tu; sdod du; mchis pas; de lugs 5. dgongs pa ’tshol 6. sdod du ’jug pa; cig? mdzad 7. sngon dus; ’u lag gi rigs 9. srol med; tshug pas; bar {kyi}? 10. rabs bcad bzos?; mi rgyal ba’i? dgongs pa ’tshol; ’di ltar min 12. pas smu; ’bral dgos? gnang ba

Translation

Upper sheet
(A letter of complaint concerning the activities of the neighbouring settlement of Tshug, and probably addressed to the Khri thog pa, the Duke of Baragaon.)

Lower sheet
The wolfish Tshugwas are like the proverb “what a horse eats will not be sufficient for a sheep”. We beg you to consider this behaviour. The Tshugwas repeatedly claim that they are suffering hardship. They have come to press (dad for ’ded or bsdad, ‘sit, occupy responsibility’) us on the matter of [obligations concerning] their land as well as their taxes and trans- portation duties. We pray you, consider this behaviour! Force the Tshugwas to take part (dad for bsdad) in [the obligations concerning] the land on which we Tepas live, as well as our taxes and our transportation duties! According to past usage, it was customary for the class of people concerned with transportation duties to [have to travel] only from Dzar, Dzong and Kag, those three [places], up to the Shod yul, and from the Shod yul to Chuwer. Those Tshugwas have put an end to the people of Chuwer. Those Tshugwas never fail to win (?). Please judge the matter. Otherwise, please grant that we Tepas may be exempted from [transportation duties across?] the Muya Pass.

Commentary
This document must be read in the light of the lengthy complaints made against Tshug by the Tepas in the preceding document (HMA/Te/Tib/36), with which the present text is assumed to be approximately contemporary. The former document also refers to Tshug’s forcible unpeo- pling of Chuwer, as well as a number of other small settlements in the Shod region (see Ramble and Seeber 1995). In that work, the Tepas complain that, among other things, the Tshugpas have occupied the land from which they have evicted the previous inhabitants, but the other Shod communities—including Te—are continuing to pay taxes for these pastures even though they are barred by Tshug from enjoying usufruct. The present document sheds some interesting light on the nature of corvée transportation duties under the Khri thog pa rulers. It is implied that the first stage of porterage duties northwards on behalf of Dzar, Dzong and Kag, the three main ‘capitals’ (Dangardzong is the fourth) of lower Baragaon extended up to the Shod enclave. Although we are not told who was charged with this section, it is likely to have been the inhabitants of Khyenga and Phelag, who at the present time bear the stigma of having once been ’u lag settlements. The second staging post is said here to have been Chu bar, an abandoned settlement just to the north of Samar, the ownership of which land has been the subject of several disputes between Samar and Tshug in recent times. We are not told which settlement or settlements of the Shod yul were responsible for this leg of the journey. The concluding sentence seems to state that the Tepas wish to be “separated from the smu ya”. Muya is the Seke name for the pass that divides the Muktinath valley from the territory of Te. The name probably derives from the Seke name of Dzong, which is Muga (or Mukha; Seke ya: ‘pass’) It may be concluded from this that at least a part of their transportation require- ments involved them travelling through the eastern route via Dzong, rather than down the Kali Gandaki Valley to Kag.