Date: Iron Tiger year, 1st month, …(illegible) day, Thursday (1890)
Lines: 15 lines of text; 2 columns of signatures, respectively of 11 lines and 8 lines
Script: tshugs; a short passage of dbu can in the left margin


  1. lcags stag zla pa dang po’i mtshes bres za snga la | sted mtshugs gnyis ’chogs | mtshwa chu’i dkor la slang mo ’byung bzhing | stab shil
  2. nang gi bar mi rnams nas bar ’dums mdzad nas | sted mtshugs gnyis phyogs nas chod tshig (yig ge) bris nas bkrad don la | don rtsa sngon bdus phan
  3. nas | skal ba mchags nas tshun | tshwa chu gnyis phyogs nas chu na chu snyam dang | za na za snyams dang mthung na mthung snyams byas nas sdad yod pa la | sde la
  4. (byes su) ’dzum slang brgyal po’i dpon ngo la skyang | tsha chu’i dkor la slang mo phren rtsams ’byung nas | ’dzum slang brgyal po nas skyang | sngon ’khyun dang po bstar | khyed
  5. sted mtshugs gnyis phyogs tsha chu chu na chu snyam dang | thung na thung snyams dang | za na za snyams byed gsung nas phan tshun gnyis phyogs la phyags stams re res snang
  6. yod pa la | (bye su) lo sta yos lo la ’khrug bzhi snang ’byung ’byung par (bsten nas) | thar stabs shil nang gi bar mi sku ngo snams nas | sngon chag
  7. rab phan nas tshwa chu | chu na chu snyams dang | thung na thung snyams dang | za na za snyams yod pa dang | (byes su) ’dzum slang brgyal po’i phyag stams yod pa
  8. la (sten nas) | sda sta nas zung bzhing slar (phyis su) skyang | dgong don gnyis la cha nas byas zhing | za na za snyams dang | thung na thung snyams dang | chu
  9. na chu snyams byed gsung pa la | gnyis phyogs ha dgos nas | bar mi gsung pa la cha gnas byas nas nyen pa yin | slar (phyis su) skyang sted dang
  10. phan ’tshun gnyis phyogs nas | dgong don skyi mchod pa star la | dbu slang sme snyen brang bskad tsam ston pa shar tshes | = =1= brgyal
  11. bzhabs su bha dngul bgya tham ba ’bul lam zhu brgyu zhus pa’i chod brgya ’bris nas bkrad pa | stab shil nang gi bar mi sku ngo brnams cha spang zhug
  12. nas | (yig ge) phan ’tshun gnyis phyogs la bkrad pa yin | ma zad sted pa la thigs bdun byas pa’i (yig ge) gcigs yod gzer zhing | sngon bdus skyang ston
  13. ’byung pas | sda sta bskyang ston gzer nas tshugs pa’i zer bdus | sted pa nas thigs bdun byas pa’i (yig ge) skyang med | sda sta skyang ston brgyu med
  14. slar (phyis su) skyang (yig ge) sde zhin thon pa ’byung na | skyir stas mdzun yigs byed gzer nas | sted pa nas gzer pa yin | dgong don la mi gyur pa
  15. tshugs sgan rtsos yul rnams skyis rtags the ze | stab shil

Left Column

  1. tshugs rgan rkun ga (sten ’dzin) gyi rtags the bo —
  2. rtsugs rgan (rdo rje) tshe ring rtag the bo —
  3. bha la ha sti mi nam kha’i rtags the bo —
  4. bha la ha sti mi (rdo rje) stags the bo —
  5. bha la ha sti mi zla ba’i rtags the bo —
  6. bha la ha sti mi sod nams gsams sgrub skyis rtags the bo —
  7. bha la ha sti mi tshe ring chos skyab stags the bo —
  8. bha la ha sti mi spen pa tshe ri rtags the bo —
  9. bha la ha sti mi tshe skyab (rdo rje) rtags the bo —
  10. bha la ha sti mi tshe ring rgyal tshan rtags the bo —
  11. bha la ha sti mi dbyu ru rtags the bo —

Right Column

  1. dgong don sbrig lams mdzad pa’i cha spang tshugs mi brgyu yod =
  2. skag sku bzhab (mkhams gsum) — 1
  3. sdzar sku bzhabs zang sdor — 1
  4. skag ’dri ha spen pa tshe ri — 1
  5. dpu rang spen pa — 1
  6. tshog rnams (bla ma) tshe dbang bum ba — 1
  7. sted phu ru zhug pa’i am spyi tshe dbang
  8. sahi (Nepali written perpendicular to main text) yigs bris dang rdzong tshe dbang (srid thar) — 1

Left Margin
dBu can, written perpendicular to main text
yi ge sde star phan mtshun gnyis ’phyog la yod


dBu can text in the left margin states: “each of the two parties (i.e. Te and Tshug) has a document like this one”.
A dispute (slang mo < gleng mo) has arisen over the salt water in Tshaurong, in the Upper Narshing River. All the signatories in the list (stab shil < Nep. tapsil) are intermediaries who have negotiated this agreement. The purpose of this document, a copy of which is to be given to both Te and Tshug: since ancient times the two communities have had equal rights to the water, and this state of affairs shall endure until the end of the world age. They have equal rights to draw the water, to drink it, and to eat it (za in this context may mean simply ‘use’, but it may also imply the solid salt that crystallises out of this water). This continued to be the case even later on, in the time of the nobleman (i.e. the representative in Kag?) of the King of Jumla. Then a dispute arose, and the King of Jumla decreed that Te and Tshug should use the salt water equally according to tradition, and each side has a document to this effect.
A dispute over the same issue flared up in a Hare year (1879?), and the intermediaries listed (below?) have settled the matter with a decision that honours both precedents: on the one hand, the tradition that has pertained since the origin of the communities, and on the other the written confirmation issued by the King of Jumla. They have decided that usage should be equal with respect to drawing, drinking and eating [the crystal solute of?] this water. The two parties have understood this, and agree to abide by the mediators’ decision. No opposition as much as the buzzing of a fly shall be raised.
The fine for violating this agreement shall be100 rupees.
The Tepas claim that they have a document with seven ‘spots’ (thig, i.e. seals), presumably in support of their claim to sole usufruct; they have produced it in the past, and they can produce it now. The Tshugpas, however, maintain that the Tepas have no such document with seven seals, and they should not produce one now. Even if they do produce such a document at a later stage, it shall be regarded as false.
The Tepas agree to abide by this agreement. The people of Tshug, led by their headmen, affix their signatures. The left column lists two headmen of Tshug and nine ‘big men’ (bha la ha sti mi < Nep. bhaladmi), apparently also representatives of Tshug. The right column, the intermediaries and witnesses, includes the principal lords of Dzar and Kag, and one signatory from each of Kag and Purang. The last two signatories are two lamas of Te, Tshe dbang ’bum pa of Tshognam, and “Am chi Tshe dbang, who lives at the head of the Te Valley” (i.e. in the temple of Baza called Ga’u dgon pa). This document in fact contains neither seals nor thumbprints, suggesting that it is the copy of an original that is kept in Tshug.


For further information concerning the salina of Tshaurong, see commentary to document HMA/Te/Tib/01.