Date (on last line): Dragon or Snake year (?lo da ’bru lu < lo rtags ’brug lo/sbrul lo), 1st month, 16th day (probably 1832/1833)
Lines: 12, including title at top Script: ’khyug
Remarks: two identical round seals at bottom right, containing two syllables in Tibetan script, thog rgyal.


  1. khri thob bkra shis thog rgyal sku Zzhabs nas |
  2. blo smad yul kha 12 gyis cob rgyad grug co la tham kha rnang bdon la
  3. da lam (a khu) gung rgyal nas khri thob mzhes skab | ngos nas ros stod zer gyis zod kyang ros smad sem mi
  4. ma zod ba m.yul la chas nas yong skyang | blo smad snga Zzhabs cab rgyad grug co {2S} dang spon spo cham nas sdod ba
  5. yin cin | da lam lo ta spres lus mor gyis cha nas ma thog byis sgyu med cin | ma zad spon
  6. spang snyis lar rgya phyig gril yin cin | spon spus yin skyang blo smad snga Zzhabs grim tsha med cin
  7. snga zhabs nas yin skyang spon bo grim tsha med pa’i tham kha rnang ba yin | da lam zla ba 10 ba’i
  8. nang ’rgyal zhabs bsku ’dun ma ’gro ba mi zer grim nas kha chi dad | grod ba nang dad byas ba gsam
  9. la thi snyid khab la rtse snyis byas ba byung tshes ’ab dngul tong cig blo smad snga zhabs la
  10. nga rang thad nes sprad gu yin zer [nas tham kha] |snang| ba yin cin | bdon bya de la mi ’gal ba
  11. khri thob (bkra shis) thob brgyal gyis tham kha zla ba 1 tshes 16 lo da ’bru lu rnang ba dges (two seals; the first contains the syllables thog rgyal)

2. 12 kyi bco brgyad drug bcu; tham ga gnang don 3. thob bzhes skabs; ro stod kyi gzer bzod?; ro smad sems kyis 4. {ma} bzod pa yul; yong kyang; bco brgyad drug bcu; dpon po ’cham 5. yin cing; lo rtags spre lo’i mohār gyi; byed rgyu med; zad dpon 6. ’bangs gnyis; gcig sgril yin cing; dpon po yin kyang; mnga’ zhabs ’grim sa med cing 7. mnga’ zhabs; kyang dpon po ’grim sa med; tham ga gnang 8. nang rgyal; sku mdun; ’grim nas; (kha chi dad | grod ba nang dad)? byas pa sems

9. thig gnyis; rtse gnyis; tshe ’ba’; stong gcig; mnga’ zhabs 10. thad nas sprad rgyu; tham ga gnang ba yin cing; don bya 11. tham ga; lo rtags ’brug/sbrul lor gnang ba dge |

From the Khri thob bKra shis thog rgyal, the lord, to those between the ages of eighteen and sixty in the Twelve Communities of Lower Lo.

When my father (or uncle) Gung gyal became the khri thob [he said], “Although I can endure the shooting pains in my upper body [occasioned by the thought of refusing this responsibility], my heart, in the lower part of my body, cannot bear it, and I shall accordingly come to the community below. Those aged between eighteen and sixty among the subjects of Lower Lo reached this agreement with the lord, and he remained [as our ruler].

And now I shall do [likewise], but only because it is in accordance with the terms of the edict that was issued in the Monkey Year. And moreover, the lord and the people are united as one under the law. The lord, for his part, should not abandon his subjects, [the people of] Lower Lo, and the subjects for their part should not abandon their lord. The present sealed document has been issued to this effect.

[The meaning of the next line is unclear, but seems to suggest that, three months earlier, he was considering going—defecting?—to the King of Lo.]

If I have two lines on my heart, or behave like a needle with two points, I shall willingly pay a fine of 1000 rupees to my subjects of lower Lo. In order that there should be no transgression of this matter, the Khri thob bKra shis [thog] rgyal has issued this sealed document on the sixteenth day of the first month in a Dragon (or Snake?) year.

The fact that the date given contains only the calendrical animal, either a Snake or a Dragon (Tib. sbrul or ’brug—the word is not clear), and lacks an accompanying element, means that we can place it only within a twelve-year, rather than the full sixty-year, cycle. However, if the lord named Gung rgyal in the document is the same as the Kun rgyal who appears—still alive—in another document of 1820 from Dzar (Schuh 1994: 44), the work can be no earlier than the Iron Dragon year of 1820 or the Iron Snake year of 1821, and more probably dates from the next Dragon or Snake year twelve years later.

There is no evidence that ducal succession in Baragaon was anything other than a matter of filial inheritance. The author of this document, however, explains his accession in terms of pious duty to the subjects whom is to serve, in accordance with the law laid down by the Gorkha rulers of Nepal. I do not know of the “edict issued in the Monkey Year” to which the document refers. The fact that the term for edict, mor, obviously signifies the Nepali word [lāl]mohar, suggests that it was an affirmation by the Gorkhas of the family’s hereditary right to rule. The earliest available Gorkhali document concerning Baragaon, dating from 1790 and addressed to the lord of Dzar, begins with the following reminder:

[We] issued, be it recalled, a [lāl]mohar in the past [lit. yesterday] to the effect that you should enjoy the birtto [of] Bahragāũ (Baragaon), Nār and Manāṅ (Manang) along with the jāgāt of Kāk, which you have enjoyed since olden times… (Pant and Pierce 1989: 21).

The date of the mohar in question is not given, but it may be noted that the nearest Monkey year to 1790 was the Wood Monkey year of 1788, just two years earlier.