Date: not given, probably 1912 (see HMA/UTshognam/Tib/32)
Lines: 24
Script: ’khyug

A legal petition (ba ti i sar < Nep. bādi ijhār) submitted to the government court by Lama Tenpa Gyaltsen against Lama Tshewang Angyal and his mother Butri of Lower Tshognam, in a dispute over the inheritance of a household and property.


  1. glo smad bha ra gha’u gis a smal mgo dpon gsum gis bka’ rtsar ’du | [kh]o [tsho]gs gnaṃ bla ma bstan pa’i brgyal^n (brgyal mtshan) nas | kho bo tshogs gnam ’og gi blaṃ (bla ma) tshe dbang ang
  2. rgyal dang kho’i a ma ’bu grigs ma bu gnyis min bsu bha sti i sar ’bri don =u [±2S] [don] rtsa | sngon blaṃ (bla ma) rig rten [rang] grol phur ba ang mo sogs bcas ’bu dang ’bu mo
  3. rnam kyis pha ma chung ngu nas sku tshe pha rol gshegs bas dusu (dus su) kha chems la | ’bu mang (< dang?) ’bu mo rnaṃs cham na yom ’dad brgyu dang ma cham ba ’byung tshes | pha yis chos
  4. bcas gang yod ’bu la | a mas brgyan dgos gang yod ’bu mo la | bde ldag brgyu nor bca’ lag zhing khang sa bzhi bcas gang yod suṃ cha suṃ gnyis dgos nas gter
  5. =i= =ung =i= =e= =i= de dang [1S] na g= thabs srid thabs bcas mee (me me) nga dbang rdoe (rdo rje) [±1S] ’dug bzhin | bde brjes mee (me me) nga dbang rdoe (rdo rje) sku zhing gshegs skabs sngon kyi i bi yees (ye shes)
  6. dbang mo’i kha chem yige (yig ge) bde blaṃ (bla ma) rig brten spun rnaṃ la hrad nas pha ma’i kha chem ltar bshad bzhin | ma tshad nga rang gis khang ba bde bzhin brtse mo nas rtsa ba thugs
  7. ngos gi zhabs rtogs byed mi bu dang bu mo’i tshabs bu mo phur ba ang mo’i ang ma [gtogs?] | khyed spun gzhan rnaṃ la ang rtsen med do gsung nas snang ’dug bzhin | bde brjes
  8. bla ma rig brten bzhing gshegs skabs kyang | a sku nga dbang rdoe’i (rdo rje’i) khang ba bu mo phur ba ang mo’i dbang brtsen yin zhing | gzhan a ma’i kha chem ltar | da thugs rang res
  9. spun rnaṃs skyid ’dug gcig pa byas pa yin | da phyin khyed rnaṃs kyang a ma’i kha chem yi ge ltar cham par byed gsung ba’i zhal chem ’phya spang bcas Zzhag ’dug na
  10. ngos gi i bi phur ba ang mo skye sman bud med song bar snyab bcod gis | kho bo [a?] kyis tshe dbang ’bum spa dang a ma bu grigs rnams nas pha ma’i kha chem kyi rgyu nor
  11. bca’ lag sa zhing khang ba rnaṃs ma gter ba’i mkhar | kho bo tshe dbang ang rgyal ’thung ’dad byas pha hrib hang song gis | ngos kyis i bi phur ba dbang mo la me me nga
  12. dbang rdoe (rdo rje) nas snang ba’i khang ba ’bu che chung gnyis la sngon rang du i bi ma shi dgongs dgos nas snang ’dug pa da cha bu che ba’i sna ma me smad dang ngos bu chung bas
  13. ’bu la mi thob zer bzhin kho bo’i sbal bshad byas pa ma bzod pas bka’ khrim dar bshan i sar nang ’khod yod pa ltar la | ngos dang kho gnyis a zhang chung
  14. pa dang | a ṇe tsha bo gcig pa yin zhing | mee (me me) bla ma rigs brten gis bu dang tsha bo ngos gnyis ka ma yin pas | khong grong skabs Zzhal chem kyang pha ma’i kha chem
  15. ltar cham par byed gsung ’dug bzhin | da cha nged gnyis ga no dang nu mo tsha bo g[c]ig pa chos pas shul ’dzin ma rtogs | rgyal bo’i grong ’dzin min pas bu dang bu
  16. mo phugs sdor skyes pa’i e khyed med | phur ba ang mo la pha mes kha chem ltar ma ’krad par kho bo nu bo’i ’bu tsha ’us da thub ’dzin gzung byas nas zhags pa ma shes
  17. bskor kho bo gugs sbyang snang nas | ngos gi i bi bu shul ’dzin ngos yin pa i bi yees (ye shes) dbang mo’i kha chem yige (yig ge) dang | bla ma rigs brten kyis Zzhal chem ltar | kho bo’i mee (me me)
  18. blaṃ (bla ma) rang grol dang khoo (kho bo) a kyi tshe dbang ’buṃ pas gter ’dug pa’i mchod tshig yige (yig ge) la bzhibs dpyad snang bzhin | blaṃ (bla ma) rigs brten rang grol phur ba ang mo bcas spun
  19. rnam kyis pha ma gcig pa’i bu krugs yin min bshaṃ sal phya spang bka’ bris thogs nas | ngos gnyis chos bas bu blaṃ (bla ma) rig brten spun rnams kyis tsha bo gcig bas
  20. gshaṃ sal rgyu nor sa zhing khang ba gang yod ngos kyis i bi phur ba ang mos thob khung suṃ chas bha kra bzhi bhi gu ston nas snang thabs yod pa mkhyeeen (mkhyen mkhyen mkhyen) | —
  21. bstabs shil
  22. khang pa gnyis — bzhing bcu gsuṃ [2S] | suṃ cha gcig gis bha gra bzhi yin ——
  23. yees (yes shes) dbang mo’i ’bu dang ’bu mo gcig pa yin min | gshod yul kha zhi’i rgan rgon rnaṃs la bka’ bris snang thabs zhu | ——
  24. dgong don tshang ma bden pa ma rtogs rdzun pa med rdzun du song tshe yul srol gis nyes pa sgrub zhu bzhus blaṃ brtag phul |

1. bāhragāũ; amāl; kacahari 2. ming du badi ijhār; bu dang bu mo 3. rnams kyi; bu dang (?) bu mo rnams ’cham na yom (SMT < mnyam) sdod rgyu; ma ’cham pa ’byung tshe 4. bu la; bu mo; de dag rgyu nor; sa gzhi; gnyis bgos 5. de rjes mes mes; ibi ye shes 6. kha chems yi ge de; spun rnams la sprad; kha chems; de bzhin rtse mo nas rtsa ba thug 7. zhabs tog; bu mo’i tshab; rnams la dbang btsan; gnang ’dug; de rjes 8. zhing gshegs; a khu ngag dbang; dbang btsan yin; kha chems ltar; da thug rang 9. skyid sdug; ma’i kha chems; ’cham pa byed; zhal chems; cha dpang bcas bzhag 10. ngos kyi ibi 11. ster ba’i khar; ’thung sdod; pharep hang song; ibi phur; mo la mes mes ngag 12. nas gnang; bu che; ibi ma shi gong dngos gnas gnang; mna’ ma mämä 13. bu la; ma gzod pas bka’ ’khrims brdar shan ijhār gnang 14. mes mes; zhal chems; kha chems 15. ’cham par; chos pa’i shul 16. phu mdor; kha chems; sprad par; bu tsha’us; bzung byas nas bzhag pa ma shes? 17. skor; ’gugs ’chang gnang; kha chems; zhal chems; mes mes 18. kho bo aki; bster ’dug; chod tshig; zhib dpyad nang bzhin 19. bu phrug; sham gsal cha dpang; bka’ ’dri thog 20. sham gsal; thob khungs gsuṃ cha’i baṇḍā bzhi bhiku bton nas gnang 21. tapsil 22. baṇḍā bzhi 23. bu dang bu mo; shod yul kha bzhi’i; bka’ ’bri 24. gong don; ma rtogs rdzun; rtags phul

To the judge (a smal < Nep. amāl, lit. court), the chief (? mgo) and lord (dpon) (or, the three judicial chiefs?): Tenpa Gyaltsen of Tshognam presents this petition (ba ti i sar < Nep. bati ijhār) against those named Lama Tshewang Angyal of Lower Tshognam and his mother, Butri. The subject is as follows. In the past, the father and mother of Lamas Rigden and [Rang]drol and Phurba Angmo died when their sons and their daughter were young. According to their will, if the sons and (mang = dang?) the daughter got on, they should live together. But if it should happen that they did not get on, all the father’s books should go to the sons, and all the mother’s jewelry and clothing should go to the daughter. [Other] items of wealth and property, as well as the estate with its fields and buildings, should be divided into two parts comprising one-third and two-thirds… (line 5 beginning unreadable): as Grandfather Ngawang Dorje [says?]. After that, when Grandfather Ngawang Dorje had passed away, the earlier Grandmother Yeshe Angmo gave her written will to Lama Rigden and his brother and sister. According to their parents’ will, “…and furthermore, in this way, our house from its topmost point to its foundations shall be in the exclusive possession (ang < dbang) of our daughter Phurba Ang[mo], who gave us the filial service that ought to have been provided by [all three] of our children, and not in the possession of you other [two] siblings”. This is what was stated.

And later, at the time of Lama Rigden’s death, his uncle Ngawang Dorje house was in the power of the daughter Phurba Angmo; and moreover, as it says in the mother’s will, “until now, we three siblings have been living as a single household (skyid sdug); from now on, in accordance with your mother’s will, you should get on together”. If there is a witnessed will that says this, on top of the fact that [Tshewang Angyal’s] father Tshewang Bumpa and his mother Butri treated our grandmother Phurpa Angmo contemptuously because she was a woman, and did not give her the valuables, property, fields and buildings according to the will, he, Tshewang Angyal, sitting and drinking (? ’thung ’dad), states in an outrageous exaggeration that the house that was given to our grandmother Phurba Angmo by Grandfather Ngawang Dorje, whereas it had already (? sngon rang du) been divided up and given to the older and younger brothers before her death; and now, saying that it should not be inherited by the female relatives of the older son’s wife or by me, the son of the younger brother, without enduring his bullying (sbal < Nep. bal), as it is stated in the report (? i sar < ijhār) of the legal inquiry, “Since the two of us are the same: [respectively] the grandson of [my] grandmother’s younger brother [in his case] and of [his] great-aunt [in my case], and not the sons or grandsons of Lama Rigden, when he (Lama Rigden?) died, his will, like the will of his parents, said “you two should agree”, (15) and in accordance with that, not only are the two [lineages], the grandsons of the younger brother and sister, heirs of lamas (chos pa), not households that are royal subjects, but the brother and the sister [in the grandparents’ generation] were not respectively born inside the house and on its threshold; there is no difference between them. And so (16), in connection with the little-known fact that, in contradiction to the will of our ancestors the son and the grandson of the younger brother (= Rangdrol?) did not give this property to Phurba Angmo, but have occupied it themselves, they should be arrested. In accordance with the will of Grandmother Yeshe Angmo and the will of Lama Rigden, in keeping with a close examination of the agreement given by his grandfather Meme Lama Rangdrol and his father Tshewang Bumpa, Lamas Rigden and Rangrol and [their sister] Phurba Angmo, on the strength of inquiries among witnesses, whose names are set out clearly below, about whether or not these three siblings are the children of the same parents, we are all the same grandchildren of Lama Rigden and his siblings, who were a priestly family, and all the property, the land and the houses that are clearly itemised below, the exact amount of one-third of the source of our grandmother Phurba Angmo’s inheritance, should be taken away from [Tshewang Angyal] and given to us.

Two houses and 13 fields—this is exactly one-third [of the inheritance]

We request that elderly people of the four Shöyul be asked whether or not [Rigden, Rangdrol and Phurba Ango] really were the sons and daughter of Yeshe Angmo. (24) Everything above is only the truth, with no falsehood, and if there is any falsehood I request that I be punished in accordance with the custom of the community.

Lines 13–14, a zhang chung pa dang | a ṇe tsha bo gcig pa, “…the same: [respectively] the grandson of [my] grandmother’s younger brother [in his case] and of [his] great-aunt [in my case]”: in the present context the terms a zhang (maternal uncle) and a ne (paternal aunt) are clearly intended to denote corresponding figures in the ascending generation, viz., (paternal) grandmother’s brother and (paternal) grandfather’s sister.

Line 20, bha kra bzhi < baṇḍā bzhi: lit. “a four-way division”. In everyday usage in SMT, this term simply signifies any number of equal portions.